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Cellosaurus Sf9 (CVCL_0549)

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Cell line name Sf9
Synonyms SF9; sf9; SF-9; Sf-9; sf-9; Sf 9; Spodoptera frugiperda clone 9; Sf clone 9; IPLB-Sf-9AE; IPLB-SF-9AE; IPLB-SF-9; IPLB-Sf-9; IPLB-Sf9
Accession CVCL_0549
Resource Identification Initiative To cite this cell line use: Sf9 (RRID:CVCL_0549)
Comments Group: Insect cell line.
Group: Recombinant protein production insect cell line.
Group: Space-flown cell line (cellonaut).
Group: Vaccine production cell line.
Biotechnology: Used for the production of the Novavax SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) vaccine (Trade name: NVX-CoV2373) (DrugBank=DB15810). The cell line is used to produce the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein rSARS-CoV-2 which is the active part of the vaccine formulation.
Doubling time: 25.2 +- 2.8 hours (Note=At 28 Celsius) (PubMed=10718368); 27 hours (PubMed=21667340); ~50 hours (DSMZ=ACC-125).
Karyotypic information: Heterogeneous, contains a mixture of diploid and tetraploid cells.
Omics: Transcriptome analysis by ESTs sequencing.
Omics: Transcriptome analysis by microarray.
Omics: Genome sequenced.
Anecdotal: Have been flown in space on shuttle flights STS-50 (USML-1), STS-54 and STS-57 (Spacehab-1) to study growth in microgravity (PubMed=8050503).
Caution: The SfRV rhabdovirus found in Sf9 cells of ATCC CRL-1711 lot 5807852 (PubMed=24672045) does not seem to be expressed in CRL-1711 lot 5814 from 1987 (PubMed=28423032). The SfRV genome is integrated in the Sf9 genome.
Derived from site: In situ; Ovary; UBERON=UBERON_0000992.
Species of origin Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm) (NCBI Taxonomy: 7108)
Hierarchy Parent: CVCL_0518 (Sf21)
CVCL_A8DC (Sf9 SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1)CVCL_A8DD (Sf9 SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2)CVCL_JX36 (Sf9 TiterHigh AC free)
CVCL_B6BV (Sf9-GFP)CVCL_A2IM (Sf9-HT)CVCL_UF23 (sf9-ht33)
CVCL_UF24 (sf9-ht35)CVCL_Z457 (Sf9-P35AcV5-1)CVCL_Z458 (Sf9-P35AcV5-3)
CVCL_C3IH (Sf9/TPS4)CVCL_4U10 (Sf900+)CVCL_Z459 (Sf9S)
CVCL_Z364 (Sfbeta4GalT)CVCL_C3MD (SfSWT-4)CVCL_C3ME (SfSWT-5)
CVCL_Z454 (VE-CL-01)CVCL_Z455 (VE-CL-02)CVCL_Z456 (VE-CL-03)
Sex of cell Female
Age at sampling Pupal stage
Category Spontaneously immortalized cell line
Web pages https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sf9_(cells)

PubMed=1367489; DOI=10.1021/bp00007a002
Hink W.F., Thomsen D.R., Davidson D.J., Meyer A.L., Castellino F.J.
Expression of three recombinant proteins using baculovirus vectors in 23 insect cell lines.
Biotechnol. Prog. 7:9-14(1991)

PubMed=1369220; DOI=10.1021/bp00017a003
Wickham T.J., Davis T., Granados R.R., Shuler M.L., Wood H.A.
Screening of insect cell lines for the production of recombinant proteins and infectious virus in the baculovirus expression system.
Biotechnol. Prog. 8:391-396(1992)

PubMed=8314732; DOI=10.1007/BF02633986
Davis T.R., Wickham T.J., McKenna K.A., Granados R.R., Shuler M.L., Wood H.A.
Comparative recombinant protein production of eight insect cell lines.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 29:388-390(1993)

PubMed=8050503; DOI=10.1006/excr.1994.1223
Moos P.J., Fattaey H.K., Johnson T.C.
Cell proliferation inhibition in reduced gravity.
Exp. Cell Res. 213:458-462(1994)

PubMed=7615077; DOI=10.1016/0014-5793(95)00640-u
Tremblay G.B., Sohi S.S., Retnakaran A., MacKenzie R.E.
NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase is targeted to the cytoplasm in insect cell lines.
FEBS Lett. 368:177-182(1995)

PubMed=8799737; DOI=10.1111/j.1365-2583.1996.tb00053.x
McIntosh A.H., Grasela J.J., Matteri R.L.
Identification of insect cell lines by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF).
Insect Mol. Biol. 5:187-195(1996)

PubMed=10718368; DOI=10.1290/1071-2690(2000)036<0117:AOAICL>2.0.CO;2
Gerbal M., Fournier P., Barry P., Mariller M., Odier F., Devauchelle G., Duonor-Cerutti M.
Adaptation of an insect cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda to grow at 37 degrees C: characterization of an endodiploid clone.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 36:117-124(2000)

PubMed=10777062; DOI=10.1290/1071-2690(2000)036<0205:EOTGFP>2.0.CO;2
Grasela J.J., McIntosh A.H., Goodman C.L., Wilson L.E., King L.A.
Expression of the green fluorescent protein carried by Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in insect cell lines.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 36:205-210(2000)

Iwahori S., Ikeda M., Kobayashi M.
Comparative characterization of pcna genes from Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus, and two cell lines from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, and the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea.
J. Insect Biotechnol. Sericol. 71:25-34(2002)

PubMed=12052082; DOI=10.1021/bp020028
Jarman-Smith R.F., Armstrong S.J., Mannix C.J., Al-Rubeai M.
Chromosome instability in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cell line.
Biotechnol. Prog. 18:623-628(2002)

PubMed=14668217; DOI=10.1093/bioinformatics/btg324
Landais I., Ogliastro M., Mita K., Nohata J., Lopez-Ferber M., Duonor-Cerutti M., Shimada T., Fournier P., Devauchelle G.
Annotation pattern of ESTs from Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells and analysis of the ribosomal protein genes reveal insect-specific features and unexpectedly low codon usage bias.
Bioinformatics 19:2343-2350(2003)

PubMed=19003226; DOI=10.1023/B:CYTO.0000043394.40309.48
Jarman-Smith R.F., Mannix C.J., Al-Rubeai M.
Characterisation of tetraploid and diploid clones of Spodoptera frugiperda cell line.
Cytotechnology 44:15-25(2004)

PubMed=15926859; DOI=10.1290/0412081.1
Chen Y.P., Gundersen-Rindal D.E., Lynn D.E.
Baculovirus-based expression of an insect viral protein in 12 different insect cell lines.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 41:43-49(2005)

Alhag S.K.N., Yao H.-C., Peng J.-X.
Identification of insect cell lines from 8 lepidopteran species by DNA amplification fingerprinting.
J. Appl. Sci. 7:4040-4044(2007)

Wu C.-Y., Lin H.-F., Wang C.-H., Lo C.-F.
Identification of insect cell lines and cell-line cross-contaminations by nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences.
J. Appl. Entomol. 135:601-610(2010)

PubMed=19941903; DOI=10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.11.022
Karger A., Bettin B., Lenk M., Mettenleiter T.C.
Rapid characterisation of cell cultures by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric typing.
J. Virol. Methods 164:116-121(2010)

PubMed=20300881; DOI=10.1007/s12033-010-9268-3
Krammer F., Schinko T., Palmberger D., Tauer C., Messner P., Grabherr R.
Trichoplusia ni cells (High Five) are highly efficient for the production of influenza A virus-like particles: a comparison of two insect cell lines as production platforms for influenza vaccines.
Mol. Biotechnol. 45:226-234(2010)

PubMed=21667340; DOI=10.1007/s12250-011-3177-x
Wu Y.-L., Jiang L., Hashimoto Y., Granados R.R., Li G.-X.
Establishment, growth kinetics, and susceptibility to AcMNPV of heat tolerant lepidopteran cell lines.
Virol. Sin. 26:198-205(2011)

PubMed=23891577; DOI=10.1016/j.tiv.2013.07.007
Curtis T.M., Collins A.M., Gerlach B.D., Brennan L.M., Widder M.W., van der Schalie W.H., Vo N.T.K., Bols N.C.
Suitability of invertebrate and vertebrate cells in a portable impedance-based toxicity sensor: temperature mediated impacts on long-term survival.
Toxicol. In Vitro 27:2061-2066(2013)

PubMed=24375231; DOI=10.1007/s10529-013-1429-6
Wilde M., Klausberger M., Palmberger D., Ernst W., Grabherr R.
Tnao38, high five and Sf9 -- evaluation of host-virus interactions in three different insect cell lines: baculovirus production and recombinant protein expression.
Biotechnol. Lett. 36:743-749(2014)

PubMed=24672045; DOI=10.1128/JVI.00780-14
Ma H.-L., Galvin T.A., Glasner D.R., Shaheduzzaman S., Khan A.S.
Identification of a novel rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda cell lines.
J. Virol. 88:6576-6585(2014)

PubMed=28423032; DOI=10.1371/journal.pone.0175633
Hashimoto Y., Macri D., Srivastava I., McPherson C., Felberbaum R., Post P., Cox M.
Complete study demonstrating the absence of rhabdovirus in a distinct Sf9 cell line.
PLoS ONE 12:E0175633-E0175633(2017)

PubMed=28839023; DOI=10.1128/genomeA.00829-17
Nandakumar S., Ma H.-L., Khan A.S.
Whole-genome sequence of the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cell line.
Genome Announc. 5:e00829.17.1-e00829.17.2(2017)

PubMed=29038528; DOI=10.1038/s41598-017-12713-9
Shu B.-S., Zhang J.-J., Sethuraman V., Cui G.-F., Yi X., Zhong G.-H.
Transcriptome analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells reveals putative apoptosis-related genes and a preliminary apoptosis mechanism induced by azadirachtin.
Sci. Rep. 7:13231-13231(2017)

PubMed=29133148; DOI=10.1016/j.pep.2017.11.002
Geisler C., Jarvis D.L.
Adventitious viruses in insect cell lines used for recombinant protein expression.
Protein Expr. Purif. 144:25-32(2017)

Cell line collections (Providers) ATCC; CRL-1711
BCRC; 60011
CLS; 604328
ECACC; 89070101
IBRC; C10127
KCB; KCB 92018YJ
KCB; KCB 200807YJ
NCBI_Iran; C425
RCB; RCB0563 - Discontinued
Cell line databases/resources CLO; CLO_0008988
CLO; CLO_0008989
CLO; CLO_0008990
MCCL; MCC:0000450
CLDB; cl4277
CLDB; cl4278
CLDB; cl4279
CCRID; 1101INS-PUMC000117
DSMZCellDive; ACC-125
ICLDB; sf9
Lonza; 1014
TOKU-E; 3107
Anatomy/cell type resources BTO; BTO:0001240
Chemistry resources ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3308860
PubChem_Cell_line; CVCL_0549
Encyclopedic resources Wikidata; Q7459700
Medical resources MeSH; D061987
Entry history
Entry creation04-Apr-2012
Last entry update30-Jan-2024
Version number37