AC   CVCL_3009
SY   Llc-Mk2; LLC-MK-2; LLC-MK2 Original; LLCMK2; LLcMK2; Lilly Laboratories Culture-Monkey Kidney 2; MK2
DR   CLO; CLO_0007330
DR   CLDB; cl3214
DR   CLDB; cl3215
DR   CLDB; cl3218
DR   CLDB; cl3219
DR   CLDB; cl3220
DR   AddexBio; P0014004/4952
DR   ATCC; CCL-7.1
DR   BCRC; 60092
DR   BCRC; 60365
DR   BCRJ; 0146
DR   CCRID; 1102MON-NIFDC00078
DR   CCRID; 4201MON-CCTCC00156
DR   ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3307684
DR   ChEMBL-Targets; CHEMBL614691
DR   CLS; 305149
DR   ECACC; 85062804
DR   Lonza; 128
DR   PubChem_Cell_line; CVCL_3009
DR   Wikidata; Q54902701
RX   DOI=10.1002/jbmte.390020304;
RX   DOI=10.1007/BF02618370;
RX   Patent=US3904480;
RX   PubMed=4203458;
RX   PubMed=6298990;
RX   PubMed=13821019;
RX   PubMed=14185313;
RX   PubMed=14473108;
RX   PubMed=14449901;
RX   PubMed=14449902;
RX   PubMed=16494729;
RX   PubMed=18605421;
RX   PubMed=28046048;
RX   PubMed=33389257;
CC   Group: Non-human primate cell line.
CC   Group: Patented cell line.
CC   Registration: International Depositary Authority, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC); CL-7.
CC   Registration: International Depositary Authority, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC); CL-7.1.
CC   Characteristics: Derived from the trypsinization of a pool of kidneys from 6 adult rhesus monkeys.
CC   Virology: Susceptible to infection by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (PubMed=16494729).
CC   Virology: Susceptible to infection by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19) (PubMed=33389257).
CC   Derived from site: In situ; Kidney; UBERON=UBERON_0002113.
OX   NCBI_TaxID=9544; ! Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque)
SX   Sex unspecified
AG   Adult
CA   Spontaneously immortalized cell line
DT   Created: 04-04-12; Last updated: 29-06-23; Version: 33
RX   DOI=10.1002/jbmte.390020304;
RA   Cheery W.R., Hull R.N.;
RT   "Studies and observations on the growth of mammalian cells in agitated
RT   fluid medium.";
RL   J. Biochem. Microbiol. Technol. Eng. 2:267-285(1960).
RX   DOI=10.1007/BF02618370;
RA   Stulberg C.S., Coriell L.L., Kniazeff A.J., Shannon J.E.;
RT   "The animal cell culture collection.";
RL   In Vitro 5:1-16(1970).
RX   Patent=US3904480;
RA   Hull R.N., Huseby R.M.;
RT   "Enhanced production of plasminogen activator.";
RL   Patent number US3904480, 09-Sep-1975.
RX   PubMed=4203458;
RA   Petricciani J.C., Wallace R.E., McCoy D.W.;
RT   "A comparison of three in vivo assays for cell tumorigenicity.";
RL   Cancer Res. 34:105-108(1974).
RX   PubMed=6298990; DOI=10.1016/0378-1135(82)90056-6;
RA   McPhee D.A., Parsonson I.M., Della-Porta A.J.;
RT   "Comparative studies on the growth of Australian bluetongue virus
RT   serotypes in continuous cell lines and embryonated chicken eggs.";
RL   Vet. Microbiol. 7:401-410(1982).
RX   PubMed=13821019; DOI=10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a120078;
RA   Evans V.J., Kerr H.A., McQuilkin W.T., Earle W.R., Hull R.N.;
RT   "Growth in vitro of a long-term strain of monkey-kidney cells in
RT   medium NCTC 109 free of any added protein.";
RL   Am. J. Hyg. 70:297-302(1959).
RX   PubMed=14185313; DOI=10.1126/science.146.3641.241;
RG   Cell Culture Collection Committee;
RT   "Animal cell strains. The Cell Culture Collection Committee has
RT   assembled and certified 23 strains of animal cells.";
RL   Science 146:241-243(1964).
RX   PubMed=14473108; DOI=10.4049/jimmunol.88.6.796;
RA   Meyer H.M. Jr., Hopps H.E., Rogers N.G., Brooks B.E., Bernheim B.C.,
RA   Jones W.P., Nisalak A., Douglas R.D.;
RT   "Studies on simian virus 40.";
RL   J. Immunol. 88:796-806(1962).
RX   PubMed=14449901; DOI=10.1084/jem.115.5.903;
RA   Hull R.N., Cherry W.R., Tritch O.J.;
RT   "Growth characteristics of monkey kidney cell strains LLC-MK1, LLC-MK2,
RT   and LLC-MK2(NCTC-3196) and their utility in virus research.";
RL   J. Exp. Med. 115:903-918(1962).
RX   PubMed=14449902;
RA   Hull R.N., Tritch O.J.;
RT   "Characterization of cell strains by viral susceptibility.";
RL   Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 7:161-172(1962).
RX   PubMed=16494729; DOI=10.3201/eid1201.050496;
RA   Kaye M., Druce J., Tran T., Kostecki R., Chibo D., Morris J.,
RA   Catton M., Birch C.;
RT   "SARS-associated coronavirus replication in cell lines.";
RL   Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:128-133(2006).
RX   PubMed=18605421; DOI=10.1093/jnci/45.5.951;
RA   Ikeuchi T., Sandberg A.A.;
RT   "Chromosome pulverization in virus-induced heterokaryons of mammalian
RT   cells from different species.";
RL   J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 45:951-963(1970).
RX   PubMed=28046048; DOI=10.1371/journal.pone.0169391;
RA   Dotti S., Lombardo T., Villa R., Cacciamali A., Zanotti C.,
RA   Andreani N.A., Cinotti S., Ferrari M.;
RT   "Transformation and tumorigenicity testing of simian cell lines and
RT   evaluation of poliovirus replication.";
RL   PLoS ONE 12:E0169391-E0169391(2017).
RX   PubMed=33389257; DOI=10.1007/s10096-020-04106-0;
RA   Wurtz N., Penant G., Jardot P., Duclos N., La Scola B.;
RT   "Culture of SARS-CoV-2 in a panel of laboratory cell lines,
RT   permissivity, and differences in growth profile.";
RL   Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 40:477-484(2021).