ID   WI-38
AC   CVCL_0579
SY   Wi-38; WI 38; WI38; Wistar Institute-38; AG06814E; AG06814G; AG06814H; AG06814-J; AG06814J; AG06814-M; AG06814-N
DR   BTO; BTO:0000458
DR   CLO; CLO_0009591
DR   CLO; CLO_0009594
DR   CLO; CLO_0035526
DR   CLO; CLO_0035534
DR   EFO; EFO_0001260
DR   MCCL; MCC:0000485
DR   CLDB; cl4703
DR   CLDB; cl4704
DR   CLDB; cl4705
DR   AddexBio; T0016037/5007
DR   ArrayExpress; E-MTAB-38
DR   ATCC; CRL-7728
DR   BioSample; SAMN01821606
DR   BioSample; SAMN01821721
DR   BioSample; SAMN03471285
DR   cancercelllines; CVCL_0579
DR   CCRID; 1101HUM-PUMC000210
DR   CCRID; 1102HUM-NIFDC00067
DR   CCRID; 4201HUM-CCTCC00016
DR   ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3307614
DR   ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3307476
DR   ChEMBL-Targets; CHEMBL614391
DR   ChEMBL-Targets; CHEMBL612806
DR   CLS; 300428
DR   Coriell; AG06814-J
DR   Coriell; AG06814-M
DR   Coriell; AG06814-N
DR   ECACC; 90020107
DR   GEO; GSE12450
DR   GEO; GSE33710
DR   GEO; GSM827323
DR   GEO; GSM1022634
DR   GEO; GSM1022637
DR   GEO; GSM1022647
DR   GEO; GSM1022655
DR   IGRhCellID; WI38
DR   JCRB; IFO50075
DR   KCB; KCB 200556YJ
DR   KCLB; 10075
DR   Lonza; 495
DR   Progenetix; CVCL_0579
DR   PubChem_Cell_line; CVCL_0579
DR   RCB; RCB0702
DR   RCB; RCB0704
DR   TKG; TKG 0360
DR   Wikidata; Q7950532
RX   CelloPub=CLPUB00391;
RX   CelloPub=CLPUB00597;
RX   DOI=10.1007/BF02618370;
RX   DOI=10.1016/B978-0-12-007903-2.50014-3;
RX   DOI=10.1038/498407a;
RX   DOI=10.1038/498422a;
RX   DOI=10.11418/jtca1981.16.3_147;
RX   PubMed=211143;
RX   PubMed=352912;
RX   PubMed=535915;
RX   PubMed=656543;
RX   PubMed=699332;
RX   PubMed=1031681;
RX   PubMed=4203458;
RX   PubMed=4329447;
RX   PubMed=4695793;
RX   PubMed=4817727;
RX   PubMed=5347639;
RX   PubMed=5668122;
RX   PubMed=5834207;
RX   PubMed=5956336;
RX   PubMed=6256643;
RX   PubMed=6409440;
RX   PubMed=6538202;
RX   PubMed=6887978;
RX   PubMed=7065527;
RX   PubMed=7972006;
RX   PubMed=14064953;
RX   PubMed=14218592;
RX   PubMed=14315085;
RX   PubMed=17395773;
RX   PubMed=17792436;
RX   PubMed=19896956;
RX   PubMed=20215515;
RX   PubMed=22984048;
RX   PubMed=25063771;
RX   PubMed=25903999;
RX   PubMed=29546209;
CC   Group: Space-flown cell line (cellonaut).
CC   Group: Vaccine production cell line.
CC   Part of: Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) collection (transferred to ATCC in 1982).
CC   Population: Caucasian; Swedish.
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of RA27/3 - the first rubella virus vaccine.
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of live oral adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine used by the US military. Produced first by Wyeth Laboratories from 1971 to 1999 and from 2011 onward by Barr Pharmaceuticals.
CC   Biotechnology: Was used in the early 1970's for the production of the Human Diploid Cell Vaccine (HDCV) vaccine against rabies by Institut Merieux.
CC   Characteristics: Used in many context such as senescence and aging studies.
CC   Senescence: Life expectancy of 50 +- 10 population doublings. Senesces at 38 PDL (PubMed=17395773).
CC   Doubling time: ~24 hours (ATCC=CCL-75; ECACC=90020107).
CC   Omics: CTCF ChIP-seq epigenome analysis.
CC   Omics: miRNA expression profiling.
CC   Omics: SNP array analysis.
CC   Omics: Transcriptome analysis by microarray.
CC   Anecdotal: Hayflick when numbering diploid cell strains 'jumped' directly from WI-27 (which failed) to WI-38 (CelloPub=CLPUB00391).
CC   Anecdotal: Have been flown in space on Skylab-3 to study growth in microgravity (PubMed=352912).
CC   Discontinued: ATCC; CRL-7728; true.
CC   Discontinued: JCRB; JCRB9017; true.
CC   Discontinued: KCLB; 10075; probable.
CC   Derived from site: In situ; Fetal lung; UBERON=UBERON_0005597.
CC   Cell type: Fibroblast of lung; CL=CL_0002553.
ST   Source(s): AddexBio; ATCC; CCRID; ECACC; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; JCRB; RCB
ST   Amelogenin: X
ST   CSF1PO: 10,12
ST   D10S1248: 13,15
ST   D12S391: 21,23
ST   D13S317: 11
ST   D16S539: 11,12
ST   D18S51: 16,18
ST   D19S433: 13,16.2
ST   D1S1656: 11,18.3
ST   D21S11: 30,30.2
ST   D22S1045: 11,17
ST   D2S1338: 19,25
ST   D2S441: 11
ST   D3S1358: 16,17
ST   D5S818: 10
ST   D7S820: 9,11
ST   D8S1179: 14
ST   FGA: 22,24
ST   Penta D: 13
ST   Penta E: 13,14
ST   TH01: 8,9.3
ST   TPOX: 8
ST   vWA: 19,20
OX   NCBI_TaxID=9606; ! Homo sapiens (Human)
SX   Female
AG   16FW
CA   Finite cell line
DT   Created: 04-04-12; Last updated: 05-10-23; Version: 40
RX   CelloPub=CLPUB00391;
RA   Wadman M.;
RT   "The vaccine race: science, politics, and the human costs of defeating
RT   disease.";
RL   (In) ISBN 9780525427537; pp.1-436; Viking; New York (2016).
RX   CelloPub=CLPUB00597;
RG   National Institute on Aging;
RT   "1994 catalog of cell lines. NIA Aging Cell Repository.";
RL   (In) Institute for Medical Research (Camden, N.J.); pp.1-351; National Institutes of Health; Bethesda (1994).
RX   DOI=10.1007/BF02618370;
RA   Stulberg C.S., Coriell L.L., Kniazeff A.J., Shannon J.E.;
RT   "The animal cell culture collection.";
RL   In Vitro 5:1-16(1970).
RX   DOI=10.1016/B978-0-12-007903-2.50014-3;
RA   Hayflick L.;
RT   "The coming of age of WI-38.";
RL   Adv. Cell Cult. 3:303-316(1984).
RX   DOI=10.1038/498407a;
RG   Nature editorial staff;
RT   "A culture of consent.";
RL   Nature 498:407-407(2013).
RX   DOI=10.1038/498422a;
RA   Wadman M.;
RT   "Medical research: cell division.";
RL   Nature 498:422-426(2013).
RX   DOI=10.11418/jtca1981.16.3_147;
RA   Hayflick L.;
RT   "The use of human cells for production of human biologicals.";
RL   Tissue Cult. Res. Commun. 16:147-156(1997).
RX   PubMed=211143; DOI=10.1128/jcm.7.4.368-371.1978;
RA   Friedman H.M., Koropchak C.;
RT   "Comparison of WI-38, MRC-5, and IMR-90 cell strains for isolation of
RT   viruses from clinical specimens.";
RL   J. Clin. Microbiol. 7:368-371(1978).
RX   PubMed=352912; DOI=10.1007/BF02618218;
RA   Montgomery P.O. Jr., Cook J.E., Reynolds R.C., Paul J.S., Hayflick L.,
RA   Stock D., Schulz W.W., Kimsey S., Thirolf R.G., Rogers T.,
RA   Campbell D.;
RT   "The response of single human cells to zero gravity.";
RL   In Vitro 14:165-173(1978).
RX   PubMed=535915; DOI=10.1007/BF02618249;
RA   Houghton B.A., Stidworthy G.H.;
RT   "A growth history comparison of the human diploid cells WI-38 and
RT   IMR-90: proliferative capacity and cell sizing analysis.";
RL   In Vitro 15:697-702(1979).
RX   PubMed=656543; DOI=10.1016/S0006-3495(78)85487-3;
RA   Ehmann U.K., Cook K.H., Friedberg E.C.;
RT   "The kinetics of thymine dimer excision in ultraviolet-irradiated
RT   human cells.";
RL   Biophys. J. 22:249-264(1978).
RX   PubMed=699332; DOI=10.1016/0009-8981(78)90444-8;
RA   Knaup G., Pfleiderer G., Bayreuther K.;
RT   "Human diploid lung fibroblast cell lines WI 26 and WI 38 exhibit
RT   isozyme shift of alkaline phosphatase after viral transformation.";
RL   Clin. Chim. Acta 88:375-383(1978).
RX   PubMed=1031681;
RA   Jacobs J.P.;
RT   "Updated results on the karyology of the WI-38, MRC-5 and MRC-9 cell
RT   strains.";
RL   Dev. Biol. Stand. 37:155-156(1976).
RX   PubMed=4203458;
RA   Petricciani J.C., Wallace R.E., McCoy D.W.;
RT   "A comparison of three in vivo assays for cell tumorigenicity.";
RL   Cancer Res. 34:105-108(1974).
RX   PubMed=4329447; DOI=10.1084/jem.133.3.454;
RA   Giraldo G., Beth E., Hirshaut Y., Aoki T., Old L.J., Boyse E.A.,
RA   Chopra H.C.;
RT   "Human sarcomas in culture. Foci of altered cells and a common
RT   antigen; induction of foci and antigen in human fibroblast cultures by
RT   filtrates.";
RL   J. Exp. Med. 133:454-478(1971).
RX   PubMed=4695793; DOI=10.1007/BF02619060;
RA   Kadanka Z., Sparkes J.D., Macmorine H.G.;
RT   "A study of the cytogenetics of the human cell strain WI-38.";
RL   In Vitro 8:353-361(1973).
RX   PubMed=4817727; DOI=10.1016/0014-4827(74)90416-9;
RA   Dell'Orco R.T., Mertens J.G., Kruse P.F. Jr.;
RT   "Doubling potential, calendar time, and donor age of human diploid
RT   cells in culture.";
RL   Exp. Cell Res. 84:363-366(1974).
RX   PubMed=5347639; DOI=10.1016/0014-4827(69)90166-9;
RA   Stanbridge E., Onen M., Perkins F.T., Hayflick L.;
RT   "Karyological and morphological characteristics of human diploid cell
RT   strain WI-38 infected with mycoplasmas.";
RL   Exp. Cell Res. 57:397-410(1969).
RX   PubMed=5668122; DOI=10.3181/00379727-128-33119;
RA   Peterson W.D. Jr., Stulberg C.S., Swanborg N.K., Robinson A.R.;
RT   "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in human cell cultures
RT   determined by sucrose-agar gel and cellulose acetate zymograms.";
RL   Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 128:772-776(1968).
RX   PubMed=5834207; DOI=10.1001/archpedi.1965.02090030401007;
RA   Plotkin S.A., Cornfeld D., Ingalls T.H.;
RT   "Studies of immunization with living rubella virus. Trials in children
RT   with a strain cultured from an aborted fetus.";
RL   Am. J. Dis. Child. 110:381-389(1965).
RX   PubMed=5956336; DOI=10.1038/210100a0;
RA   Jacobs J.P.;
RT   "A simple medium for the propagation and maintenance of human diploid
RT   cell strains.";
RL   Nature 210:100-101(1966).
RX   PubMed=6256643; DOI=10.1038/288724a0;
RA   Day R.S. III, Ziolkowski C.H.J., Scudiero D.A., Meyer S.A.,
RA   Lubiniecki A.S., Girardi A.J., Galloway S.M., Bynum G.D.;
RT   "Defective repair of alkylated DNA by human tumour and
RT   SV40-transformed human cell strains.";
RL   Nature 288:724-727(1980).
RX   PubMed=6409440; DOI=10.1093/carcin/4.7.911;
RA   Smith P.J., Greene M.H., Adams D., Paterson M.C.;
RT   "Abnormal responses to the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide of
RT   cultured fibroblasts from patients with dysplastic nevus syndrome and
RT   hereditary cutaneous malignant melanoma.";
RL   Carcinogenesis 4:911-916(1983).
RX   PubMed=6538202; DOI=10.1083/jcb.98.3.1133;
RA   Azzarone B., Suarez H., Mingari M.C., Moretta L., Fauci A.S.;
RT   "4F2 monoclonal antibody recognizes a surface antigen on spread human
RT   fibroblasts of embryonic but not of adult origin.";
RL   J. Cell Biol. 98:1133-1137(1984).
RX   PubMed=6887978; DOI=10.1016/0047-6374(83)90043-x;
RA   Aronson J.F., McClaskey J.W., Cristofalo V.J.;
RT   "Human fetal lung fibroblasts: observations on origin and stability in
RT   culture.";
RL   Mech. Ageing Dev. 21:229-244(1983).
RX   PubMed=7065527; DOI=10.1164/arrd.1982.125.2.222;
RA   Hay R.J., Williams C.D., Macy M.L., Lavappa K.S.;
RT   "Cultured cell lines for research on pulmonary physiology available
RT   through the American Type Culture Collection.";
RL   Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 125:222-232(1982).
RX   PubMed=7972006; DOI=10.1073/pnas.91.23.11045;
RA   Okamoto A., Demetrick D.J., Spillare E.A., Hagiwara K., Hussain S.P.,
RA   Bennett W.P., Forrester K., Gerwin B.I., Serrano M., Beach D.H.,
RA   Harris C.C.;
RT   "Mutations and altered expression of p16INK4 in human cancer.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91:11045-11049(1994).
RX   PubMed=14064953; DOI=10.1164/arrd.1963.88.3P2.387;
RA   Hayflick L.;
RT   "A comparison of primary monkey kidney, heteroploid cell lines, and
RT   human diploid cell strains for human virus vaccine preparation.";
RL   Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 88 Suppl. 3:387-393(1963).
RX   PubMed=14218592; DOI=10.4049/jimmunol.93.3.353;
RA   Wiktor T.J., Fernandes M.V., Koprowski H.;
RT   "Cultivation of rabies virus in human diploid cell strain WI-38.";
RL   J. Immunol. 93:353-366(1964).
RX   PubMed=14315085; DOI=10.1016/0014-4827(65)90211-9;
RA   Hayflick L.;
RT   "The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains.";
RL   Exp. Cell Res. 37:614-636(1965).
RX   PubMed=17395773; DOI=10.1634/stemcells.2006-0504;
RA   Sudo K., Kanno M., Miharada K., Ogawa S., Hiroyama T., Saijo K.,
RA   Nakamura Y.;
RT   "Mesenchymal progenitors able to differentiate into osteogenic,
RT   chondrogenic, and/or adipogenic cells in vitro are present in most
RT   primary fibroblast-like cell populations.";
RL   Stem Cells 25:1610-1617(2007).
RX   PubMed=17792436; DOI=10.1126/science.192.4235.125;
RA   Wade N.;
RT   "Hayflick's tragedy: the rise and fall of a human cell line.";
RL   Science 192:125-127(1976).
RX   PubMed=19896956; DOI=10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2009.10.013;
RA   Wilson P.F., Nham P.B., Urbin S.S., Hinz J.M., Jones I.M.,
RA   Thompson L.H.;
RT   "Inter-individual variation in DNA double-strand break repair in human
RT   fibroblasts before and after exposure to low doses of ionizing
RT   radiation.";
RL   Mutat. Res. 683:91-97(2010).
RX   PubMed=20215515; DOI=10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3458;
RA   Rothenberg S.M., Mohapatra G., Rivera M.N., Winokur D., Greninger P.,
RA   Nitta M., Sadow P.M., Sooriyakumar G., Brannigan B.W., Ulman M.J.,
RA   Perera R.M., Wang R., Tam A., Ma X.-J., Erlander M., Sgroi D.C.,
RA   Rocco J.W., Lingen M.W., Cohen E.E.W., Louis D.N., Settleman J.,
RA   Haber D.A.;
RT   "A genome-wide screen for microdeletions reveals disruption of
RT   polarity complex genes in diverse human cancers.";
RL   Cancer Res. 70:2158-2164(2010).
RX   PubMed=22984048; DOI=10.1126/science.337.6100.1292-a;
RA   Hayflick L.;
RT   "Paying for tissue: the case of WI-38.";
RL   Science 337:1292-1292(2012).
RX   PubMed=25063771; DOI=10.18632/aging.100679;
RA   Sidler C., Woycicki R., Kovalchuk I., Kovalchuk O.;
RT   "WI-38 senescence is associated with global and site-specific
RT   hypomethylation.";
RL   Aging (Albany NY) 6:564-574(2014).
RX   PubMed=25903999; DOI=10.1002/biot.201400388;
RA   Genzel Y.;
RT   "Designing cell lines for viral vaccine production: where do we
RT   stand?";
RL   Biotechnol. J. 10:728-740(2015).
RX   PubMed=29546209; DOI=10.3934/publichealth.2017.2.127;
RA   Olshansky S.J., Hayflick L.;
RT   "The role of the WI-38 cell strain in saving lives and reducing
RT   morbidity.";
RL   AIMS Public Health 4:127-138(2017).