ID   Vero
AC   CVCL_0059
SY   VERO; VeroCCL81; Vero 81; Vero-81; Verda reno
DR   BTO; BTO:0001444
DR   CLO; CLO_0009524
DR   CLO; CLO_0050515
DR   MCCL; MCC:0000480
DR   CLDB; cl4643
DR   CLDB; cl4644
DR   CLDB; cl4645
DR   CLDB; cl4648
DR   CLDB; cl4649
DR   CLDB; cl4650
DR   CLDB; cl4651
DR   CLDB; cl5170
DR   AddexBio; P0014002/4920
DR   ATCC; CCL-81.4
DR   ATCC; CRL-6318
DR   BCRC; 60013
DR   BCRJ; 0245
DR   CCRID; 1101MON-PUMC000060
DR   CCRID; 1102MON-NIFDC00001
DR   CCRID; 4201MON-CCTCC00029
DR   CCRID; 5301MON-KCB92017YJ
DR   ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3307520
DR   ChEMBL-Targets; CHEMBL391
DR   CLS; 605372
DR   ECACC; 08011101
DR   ECACC; 84113001
DR   FCS-free; 29-11-31-2-4-4
DR   FCS-free; 29-11-47-1-8-9
DR   FCS-free; 29-11-249-1-3-3
DR   FCS-free; 29-11-338-1-16-3
DR   FCS-free; 29-11-420-1-16-12
DR   FCS-free; 29-11-433-1-16-12
DR   FCS-free; 29-11-566-1-17-2
DR   FCS-free; 29-11-587-1-18-2
DR   FCS-free; 165-11-307-1-16-6
DR   IBRC; C10001
DR   ICLC; ATL95005
DR   JCRB; IFO50471
DR   KCB; KCB 92017YJ
DR   KCLB; 10081
DR   Lonza; 173
DR   MeSH; D014709
DR   MetaboLights; MTBLS2840
DR   NCBI_Iran; C101
DR   PubChem_Cell_line; CVCL_0059
DR   RCB; RCB0001
DR   TKG; TKG 0280
DR   TOKU-E; 3415
DR   Ubigene; YC-A001
DR   Wikidata; Q3066564
RX   CelloPub=CLPUB00126;
RX   CelloPub=CLPUB00328;
RX   DOI=10.1007/BF02618370;
RX   DOI=10.12665/J63.Morgan;
RX   PubMed=2260226;
RX   PubMed=4043530;
RX   PubMed=6027511;
RX   PubMed=6298990;
RX   PubMed=10403033;
RX   PubMed=10494966;
RX   PubMed=12667817;
RX   PubMed=15731278;
RX   PubMed=16494729;
RX   PubMed=19016439;
RX   PubMed=19768803;
RX   PubMed=19941903;
RX   PubMed=22059503;
RX   PubMed=24975811;
RX   PubMed=25267831;
RX   PubMed=25903999;
RX   PubMed=28386771;
RX   PubMed=32376603;
RX   PubMed=32511316;
RX   PubMed=33389257;
CC   Group: Non-human primate cell line.
CC   Group: Vaccine production cell line.
CC   Part of: Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) collection (transferred to ATCC in 1982).
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine (Trade name: IXIARO/JESPECT).
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Trade name: Imovax Polio).
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of the Purified Vero-cell Rabies Vaccine (PVRV) (Trade name: VERORAB).
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of the Chromatographically Purified Rabies Vaccine (CPRV).
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of the live oral rotavirus vaccine (Trade Name: Rotarix).
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of the live smallpox (Vaccinia) vaccine (Trade name: ACAM2000).
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of the tetravalent dengue vaccine (Trade Name: Dengvaxia).
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of the Bharat Biotech SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) vaccine (Trade name: Covaxin; also known as BBV152) (DrugBank=DB15847). The cell line is used to produces a inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus strain.
CC   Biotechnology: Used for the production of the Sinovax SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) vaccine (Trade name: CoronaVac; also known as PiCoVacc) (DrugBank=DB15806). The cell line is used to produces the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus strain CN02 (PubMed=32376603).
CC   Virology: Susceptible to infection by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Produces a lytic infection (PubMed=15731278; PubMed=16494729).
CC   Virology: Susceptible to infection by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19). But Vero C1008 (often known as Vero E6) (Cellosaurus=CVCL_0574) seems to be more appropriate for amplification and quantification (PubMed=32511316; PubMed=33389257).
CC   Omics: Genome sequenced.
CC   Anecdotal: Verda reno means green kidney in Esperanto and Vero means truth also in Esperanto.
CC   Discontinued: ATCC; CRL-6318; true.
CC   Derived from site: In situ; Kidney, epithelium; UBERON=UBERON_0004819.
CC   Cell type: Epithelial cell of kidney; CL=CL_0002518.
OX   NCBI_TaxID=60711; ! Chlorocebus sabaeus (Green monkey)
SX   Female
AG   Adult
CA   Spontaneously immortalized cell line
DT   Created: 04-04-12; Last updated: 02-05-24; Version: 45
RX   CelloPub=CLPUB00126;
RA   Yasumura Y., Kawakita Y.;
RT   "Studies on SV40 in tissue culture: preliminary step for cancer
RT   research in vitro.";
RL   Nihon Rinsho 21:1201-1219(1963).
RX   CelloPub=CLPUB00328;
RA   Earley E.M., Johnson K.M.;
RT   "The lineage of Vero, Vero 76 and its clone C1008 in the United
RT   States.";
RL   (In) Vero cells: origin, properties and biomedical applications; Simizu B., Terasima T. (eds.); pp.26-29; Department of Microbiology School of Medicine Chiba University; Chiba (1988).
RX   DOI=10.1007/BF02618370;
RA   Stulberg C.S., Coriell L.L., Kniazeff A.J., Shannon J.E.;
RT   "The animal cell culture collection.";
RL   In Vitro 5:1-16(1970).
RX   DOI=10.12665/J63.Morgan;
RA   Morgan J.H.;
RT   "Vero cells in vaccine production.";
RL   BioProcess. J. 6:12-17(2007).
RX   PubMed=2260226;
RA   Tsareva A.A., Isaenko A.A., Urmanova M.A., Yurchenko N.D.,
RA   Balzovskaia E.G., Rodionova O.M.;
RT   "A karyotype study of the Vero cell line cultured long term in a
RT   monolayer by static and roller methods.";
RL   Tsitologiia 32:741-748(1990).
RX   PubMed=4043530;
RA   Whitaker A.M., Hayward C.J.;
RT   "The characterization of three monkey kidney cell lines.";
RL   Dev. Biol. Stand. 60:125-131(1985).
RX   PubMed=6027511; DOI=10.3181/00379727-125-32029;
RA   Simizu B., Rhim J.S., Wiebenga N.H.;
RT   "Characterization of the Tacaribe group of arboviruses. I. Propagation
RT   and plaque assay of Tacaribe virus in a line of African green monkey
RT   kidney cells (Vero).";
RL   Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 125:119-123(1967).
RX   PubMed=6298990; DOI=10.1016/0378-1135(82)90056-6;
RA   McPhee D.A., Parsonson I.M., Della-Porta A.J.;
RT   "Comparative studies on the growth of Australian bluetongue virus
RT   serotypes in continuous cell lines and embryonated chicken eggs.";
RL   Vet. Microbiol. 7:401-410(1982).
RX   PubMed=10403033; DOI=10.1006/biol.1998.0156;
RA   Lang J., Cetre J.C., Picot N., Lanta M., Briantais P., Vital S.,
RA   Le Mener V., Lutsch C., Rotivel Y.;
RT   "Immunogenicity and safety in adults of a new chromatographically
RT   purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (CPRV): a randomized, double-blind
RT   trial with purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (PVRV).";
RL   Biologicals 26:299-308(1998).
RX   PubMed=10494966;
RA   Montagnon B.J., Vincent-Falquet J.-C., Saluzzo J.-F.;
RT   "Experience with Vero cells at Pasteur Merieux Connaught.";
RL   Dev. Biol. Stand. 98:137-140(1999).
RX   PubMed=12667817; DOI=10.1016/S0042-6822(02)00064-8;
RA   Romanova J., Katinger D., Ferko B., Voglauer R., Mochalova L.,
RA   Bovin N., Lim W., Katinger H., Egorov A.;
RT   "Distinct host range of influenza H3N2 virus isolates in Vero and MDCK
RT   cells is determined by cell specific glycosylation pattern.";
RL   Virology 307:90-97(2003).
RX   PubMed=15731278; DOI=10.1128/JVI.79.6.3846-3850.2005;
RA   Mossel E.C., Huang C., Narayanan K., Makino S., Tesh R.B.,
RA   Peters C.J.;
RT   "Exogenous ACE2 expression allows refractory cell lines to support
RT   severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication.";
RL   J. Virol. 79:3846-3850(2005).
RX   PubMed=16494729; DOI=10.3201/eid1201.050496;
RA   Kaye M., Druce J., Tran T., Kostecki R., Chibo D., Morris J.,
RA   Catton M., Birch C.;
RT   "SARS-associated coronavirus replication in cell lines.";
RL   Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:128-133(2006).
RX   PubMed=19016439; DOI=10.1002/9780471729259.mca04es11;
RA   Ammerman N.C., Beier-Sexton M., Azad A.F.;
RT   "Growth and maintenance of Vero cell lines.";
RL   Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 11:A.4E.1-A.4E.7(2008).
RX   PubMed=19768803; DOI=10.1002/btpr.279;
RA   Rourou S., van der Ark A., van der Velden T., Kallel H.;
RT   "Development of an animal-component free medium for Vero cells
RT   culture.";
RL   Biotechnol. Prog. 25:1752-1761(2009).
RX   PubMed=19941903; DOI=10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.11.022;
RA   Karger A., Bettin B., Lenk M., Mettenleiter T.C.;
RT   "Rapid characterisation of cell cultures by matrix-assisted laser
RT   desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric typing.";
RL   J. Virol. Methods 164:116-121(2010).
RX   PubMed=22059503; DOI=10.1186/1472-6750-11-102;
RA   Almeida J.L., Hill C.R., Cole K.D.;
RT   "Authentication of African green monkey cell lines using human short
RT   tandem repeat markers.";
RL   BMC Biotechnol. 11:102.1-102.10(2011).
RX   PubMed=24975811; DOI=10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.06.045;
RA   Donis R.O., Chen L.-M., Davis C.T., Foust A., Hossain M.J.,
RA   Johnson A., Klimov A., Loughlin R.F., Xu X.-Y., Tsai T., Blayer S.,
RA   Trusheim H., Colegate T., Fox J., Taylor B., Hussain A.I., Barr I.,
RA   Baas C., Louwerens J., Geuns E., Lee M.-S., Venhuizen L., Neumeier E.,
RA   Ziegler T.;
RT   "Performance characteristics of qualified cell lines for isolation and
RT   propagation of influenza viruses for vaccine manufacturing.";
RL   Vaccine 32:6583-6590(2014).
RX   PubMed=25267831; DOI=10.1093/dnares/dsu029;
RA   Osada N., Kohara A., Yamaji T., Hirayama N., Kasai F., Sekizuka T.,
RA   Kuroda M., Hanada K.;
RT   "The genome landscape of the African green monkey kidney-derived Vero
RT   cell line.";
RL   DNA Res. 21:673-683(2014).
RX   PubMed=25903999; DOI=10.1002/biot.201400388;
RA   Genzel Y.;
RT   "Designing cell lines for viral vaccine production: where do we
RT   stand?";
RL   Biotechnol. J. 10:728-740(2015).
RX   PubMed=28386771; DOI=10.1007/s10616-017-0082-7;
RA   Andreani N.A., Renzi S., Piovani G., Ajmone-Marsan P., Bomba L.,
RA   Villa R., Ferrari M., Dotti S.;
RT   "Potential neoplastic evolution of Vero cells: in vivo and in vitro
RT   characterization.";
RL   Cytotechnology 69:741-750(2017).
RX   PubMed=32376603; DOI=10.1126/science.abc1932;
RA   Gao Q., Bao L.-L., Mao H.-Y., Wang L., Xu K.-W., Yang M.-N.,
RA   Li Y.-J., Zhu L., Wang N., Lv Z., Gao H., Ge X.-Q., Kan B., Hu Y.-L.,
RA   Liu J.-N., Cai F., Jiang D.-Y., Yin Y.-H., Qin C.-F., Li J.,
RA   Gong X.-J., Lou X.-Y., Shi W., Wu D.-D., Zhang H.-M., Zhu L., Deng W.,
RA   Li Y.-R., Lu J.-X., Li C.-G., Wang X.-X., Yin W.-D., Zhang Y.-J.,
RA   Qin C.;
RT   "Development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2.";
RL   Science 369:77-81(2020).
RX   PubMed=32511316; DOI=10.1101/2020.03.02.972935;
RA   Harcourt J.L., Tamin A., Lu X.-Y., Kamili S., Kumar-Sakthivel S.,
RA   Murray J., Queen K., Tao Y., Paden C.R., Zhang J., Li Y., Uehara A.,
RA   Wang H.-B., Goldsmith C., Bullock H.A., Wang L.-J., Whitaker B.,
RA   Lynch B., Gautam R., Schindewolf C., Lokugamage K.G., Scharton D.,
RA   Plante J.A., Mirchandani D., Widen S.G., Narayanan K., Makino S.,
RA   Ksiazek T.G., Plante K.S., Weaver S.C., Lindstrom S., Tong S.-X.,
RA   Menachery V.D., Thornburg N.J.;
RT   "Isolation and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 from the first US
RT   COVID-19 patient.";
RL   bioRxiv 2020:972935-972935(2020).
RX   PubMed=33389257; DOI=10.1007/s10096-020-04106-0;
RA   Wurtz N., Penant G., Jardot P., Duclos N., La Scola B.;
RT   "Culture of SARS-CoV-2 in a panel of laboratory cell lines,
RT   permissivity, and differences in growth profile.";
RL   Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 40:477-484(2021).